Maria Margarethe Winkelmann-Kirch (Panitzsch, 1670 – Berlin, 1720) was an astronomer who worked as an assistant to her husband and later to her son. Despite her work in the shadows, she had the honour of being the first woman to discover a comet, C/1702 H1, although her husband is the official discoverer. When he died, she applied for a position as an assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy but was refused because she was a woman. The Berlin Academy of Sciences feared that hiring a woman would set a bad example.

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